Quantum Walks: Their basic properties and dynamical localizationMI 03.08.011 (Boltzmannstr. 3, 85748 Garching)

Quantum walks (QWs) can be viewed as quantum analogs of classical random walks. Mathematically, a QW is described as a unitary, local operator acting on a grid and can be written as a product of shift and coin operators. We highlight differences to classical random walks and stress their connection to quantum algorithms (see Grover’s algorithm). If the QW is assumed to be translation invariant, applying the Fourier transform yields a multiplication operator, whose bandstructure we briefly study. After equipping the underlying lattice with random phases, we turn to dynamical localization. This means that the probability to move from one lattice site to another decreases on average exponentially in the distance, independently of how many steps the QW may take. We sketch the proof of dynamical localization on the hexagonal lattice in the regime of strong disorder, which uses a finite volume method.